A case-control study related to vitamin and mineral intake in female adolescents with iron deficiency anemia

Dwi Rahayu (1) , Dono Indarto (2)
(2) , Indonesia


Latar belakang: Anemia defisensi besi (ADB) merupakan salah satu masalah nutrisi pada remaja putri di seluruh dunia. Penyerapan zat besi di usus halus dipengaruhi oleh adanya vitamin C, kalsium, dan zink pada makanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pola konsumsi vitamin A, vitamin C, kalsium dan zink terhadap kejadian ADB pada remaja putri.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian case control yang melibatkan 60 remaja putri dengan ADB dan 58 remaja putri tanpa ADB. Diagnosis ADB berdasarkan kadar Hb dan indeks eritrosit, dan semikuantitatif FFQ digunakan untuk menentukan asupan vitamin dan mineral. Semua data dianalisis menggunakan test chi square dan tes regresi logistik ganda dengan p<0.05.

Hasil: Semua subjek penelitian mempunyai asupan vitamin A dan C harian yang cukup tetapi asupan kalsium dan zinknya tergolong kurang (dalam mg). Namun, mereka semua memiliki frekuensi harian yang berbeda dalam mengkonsumsi mikronutrien tersebut. Remaja putri dengan asupan vitamin A yang jarang (OR=2.67; CI95%=1.10-6.50; p=0.03) dan asupan kalsium yang sering (OR=2.27; CI95%=0.85-6.03; p=0.10) lebih berisiko terkena ADB dibandingkan dengan remaja putri dengan asupan vitamin A yang sering dan asupan kalsium yang jarang. Akan tetapi hanya asupan vitamin A yang memiliki efek signifikan secara statistik.

Kesimpulan: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingginya risiko ADB pada remaja putri berkaitan dengan asupan vitamin A yang jarang.

Kata kunci: anemia defisiensi besi, asupan mikronutrien, remaja putri



Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a nutritional problem that occurs in female adolescents around the world. Iron absorption in the small intestine is influenced by the presence of vitamin C, calcium, and zinc in ingested foods. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and zinc intake with IDA in female adolescents.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 60 anemic and 58 normal female adolescents. IDA diagnosis was determined using Hb levels and erythrocyte indexes and the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to determine vitamin and mineral intake. All collected data were analyzed using chisquare and multiple logistic regression tests with p<0.05.

Results: All groups had an adequate intake of vitamin A and C but they had inadequate intake of calcium and zinc (in mg). However, they all had different frequencies in consuming those micronutrients. Rare intake of vitamin A (OR=2.67; CI95%=1.10-6.50; p=0.03) and frequent intake of calcium (OR=2.27; CI95%=0.85- 6.03; p=0.10) increased IDA, compared with frequent intake of vitamin A and rare intake of calcium but only vitamin A intake had a significant effect.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a higher risk of IDA in female adolescents is related to a rare intake of vitamin A.

Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia; micronutrient intake; female adolescents

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Dwi Rahayu
dwi.rahayu.dr@staff.uns.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Dono Indarto
Rahayu, D., & Indarto, D. (2020). A case-control study related to vitamin and mineral intake in female adolescents with iron deficiency anemia. Health Science Journal of Indonesia, 11(1), 52–56. https://doi.org/10.22435/hsji.v11i1.3066
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